Cotton Processing Flow Chart
This figure shows the different steps used in cotton yarn formation. Some of these steps may be optional, depending on the type of yarn and spinning equipment used.
The major methods for fabric manufacture are weaving and knitting, although recently nonwoven constructions have become more popular. Before weaving, warp yarns are first wound on large spools, or cones, which are placed on a rack called a creel. From the creel, warp yarns are wound on a beam where from they are passed through a process known as sizing or slashing. The size solution forms a coating that protects the yarns against snagging or abrasion during weaving. Fabrics are formed from weaving by interlacing one set of yarns with another set oriented crosswise. In the weaving operation, the lengthwise yarns that form the basic structure of the fabric are called the warp and the crosswise yarns are called the filling, also referred to as the weft. Knitted fabrics may be constructed by using hooked needles to
interlock one or more sets of yarns through a set of loops. The loops may be either loosely or closely constructed, depending on the purpose of the fabric. Knitting is performed using either weft or warp knitting processes.
Woven and knitted fabrics cannot usually be processed into apparel and other finished goods until the fabrics have passed through several water-intensive wet processing stages. Wet processing enhances the appearance, durability and serviceability of fabrics by converting undyed and unfinished goods, known as grey or greige goods, into finished consumers’ goods.